Several methods are used to connect two pipes. These include the Mandrel method, Hot-extrusion method, CAPS method, and hydraulic bulge method. We will discuss each in detail so that you know what to expect from your plumber. After reading this article, you’ll know how to choose the right pipe fitting or Flanged joint pipe for your needs. And remember: if you don’t have the right tools, don’t worry – there are ways to get the job done correctly.

Mandrel Method

The mandrel method is a common pipe fitting method that is widely used in the metalworking industry. This process involves pushing heated sections of the pipe over a horn-shaped mandrel that determines the radius of curvature and expansion. The result is a seamless pipe that is characterized by a smooth outer surface. This method is particularly useful for pipe fittings with thick walls. However, some disadvantages of the mandrel method should be considered as well.

Mandrel bending can reduce costs while still producing high-quality results. To maximize the benefits of mandrel bending, choose common diameters, thicknesses, and radiuses. Custom dies take time and cost money to procure. However, mandrel bending may be an excellent choice for applications with full drain-ability or entrapment areas. You’ll have a lot more control over the process than with traditional bending.

One type of mandrel is the ball mandrel. Its main benefit is that it enables a multi-radius bend. The ball mandrel is made of a solid rod, which provides additional support for the inside of the tube. When used on thick-walled pipes and tubes, the mandrel can also prolong the life of the bending machine and reduce the risk of galling or kinking.

Hot-extrusion Method

The hot-extrusion method is the most commonly used technique for producing pipe fittings. Its advantages outweigh its drawbacks. The process is extremely economical and is also commonly used in manufacturing pipes for foreign markets. However, it cannot produce large diameter pipes and requires the use of bigger molds. If you’re looking for a pipe fitting that’s perfect for your needs, you can consider the hydraulic bulge method.

The temperature-dependent XRD patterns of the compound are shown in Fig. 1. As the temperature increases, the Seebeck coefficient arises while the electrical resistivity decreases. This means that the compound is less porous, allowing for increased thermal conductivity. The bending strength of the material is also increased, making the process easier to handle. The high-temperature pipe fittings are commonly used in marine applications.

The hot-extrusion tee is formed by heating the steel repeatedly. Once formed, it’s welded to the main pipe. Its chemical composition is determined by the amount of hardenable material and the temperature of the extrusion. It must meet a number of requirements, including high-temperature plasticity and good weldability. Its full-wall thickness can be a tensile sample or a uniformly-layered rectangular tensile specimen. It can also be a cylindrical tensile specimen, and it must be 25mm from the outer surface.

Another advantage of the hot-extrusion pipe fitting is its speed. It can produce a larger diameter and challenging workability requirements. And, because it’s highly accurate, it can produce any shape you want, from around tee to a helix. If you need a larger diameter, a hot-extrusion pipe fitting is a perfect solution. These advantages make it a preferred choice for fittings.

CAPS Method

The CAPS method for pipe fitting is an effective and economical method of combining two or more different-sized pipes. It uses a cap to close the end of a pipe and forms a seamless transition between the two. This method is ideal for pipes with different-sized diameters, and it has wide applications in a variety of industries. Its efficiency and high output make it an essential category of pipe fittings. Listed below are the benefits of using the CAPS method for pipe fittings.


CAPs are manufactured by a process known as deep drawing. This process cuts a circular plate from a single piece of metal and creates a seamless fitting. The plate is then finished with a single weld seam. Pipe fittings using the CAPS method are corrosion-resistant and lightweight. These fittings are produced to MSS SP43 specifications. This process also produces pipe reducers. These are the most common types of pipe fittings.

SS316 is marine-grade stainless steel. This type of steel is known for its high resistance to salt and is commonly used in nuclear reprocessing plants. It is often used in high-pressure systems. Once installed, the pipe fitting must be tested to ensure it is leak-free and safe. In many cases, it is even possible to repair a pipe fitting using the CAPS method. If you’re unsure about the CAPS method, read on for more information.

Hydraulic Bulge Method

This method is commonly used for pipe fitting. The main difference between this method and flange-style flanges is the material used in the bulging process. While flanges are generally made of carbon steel, the latter has a higher strength than carbon steel. In addition, the latter is less likely to overflow. Further development of this technology will rely on further optimization of the composition of the bulging medium and investigation of the friction properties of the material.

The basic principle of hydraulic bulging is to insert a mandrel into a hole in a pipe fitting, allowing the metal to flow into it. The mandrel then forms the outer surface of the pipe while the extruding die forms the interior surface of the pipe fitting. The hydraulic bulge method is not suitable for larger diameter pipe fittings, however, as it requires bigger molds. However, it offers flexibility for changing the body dimension.

This method of manufacturing tees uses steel plates as raw material. To produce the branch outlet, the pipe is pressed between two pieces and welded together. The hydraulic bulge method cannot be used for the manufacture of Tees with large diameters or thick walls. Additionally, it cannot be used for manufacturing smaller tees and reducers due to the need for a hot extrusion technique.

Roller Method

The Roller method of pipe fitting uses a squeezing action on the polyethylene polymer chains. This compression occurs primarily along the circumferential axis. This results in a tight fit between the liner pipe and the host pipe. The Roller method of pipe fitting requires careful preparation and early execution. This process has several advantages. One of them is its cost-effectiveness. It can be used for a wide variety of piping applications, including HVAC, water, and gas lines.

To use this method of pipe fitting, a PE100 liner pipe is inserted through a set of rollers. These rollers squeeze the pipe, reducing its diameter. Typical reductions are 10% to 20%. This reduction is maintained without axial tension. The liner pipe is then inserted into the host pipe. The pipe is then hydraulically pressurized. The natural reversion of the liner may provide a close fit.

When it comes to materials, stainless steel is the most popular material for pipe fittings. It is easy to manufacture and operate and requires only simple training to master. Moreover, it exhibits stable engineering quality, improves working efficiency, and overcomes installation complexities. The grooves in stainless steel also have anti-shock and anti-shrinkage properties. These properties make the roller method of pipe fitting the most efficient method of pipe fitting.

Concentric Reducer

The process of assembling a concentric reducer begins with a piping design. In this step, the piping designer determines the diameter of the pipe. There are two types of concentric reducers: eccentric and concentric. Each type requires a specific callout. The large end is listed first, followed by the flat side. The smaller end is indicated by a smaller callout. When designing a concentric reducer, the piping designer must also consider the sizing and orientation of the pipe rack.

The concentric reducer is recommended for vertical pipe installations, and for horizontal installations. ANSI/HI 9.8 specifies a maximum flow velocity of 2.4 m/s in suction pipework. Eccentric reducers require minimal setup space. Because they are able to minimize cavitation, they are a good choice in these situations. As a bonus, eccentric reducers have a lower cost and require less space to set up.

The concentric reducer is often used to adapt a variety of pipe sizes. However, they are also used to limit or expand the flow. In these situations, the flow and pressure will be altered. When choosing the appropriate reducer, you should carefully consider the impact of its use on the rest of the piping system. If it is used for the purpose of a hydraulic system, for example, expansion of flow may be required.